How Labs Are Working to Identify PFAS

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFAS) are prominent environmental toxins found in countless products ranging from non-stick cookware, waterproof materials, cleaning products, fabrics, packaging, furniture, firefighting foam, and more. Thanks to its prevalence in industrial manufacturing, PFAS has infiltrated the global food chain and water supply. Studies have shown that more than 99 percent of the American population holds PFAS in their bloodstream. PFAS is known to cause various health issues, including cancer, liver issues, heightened cholesterol, lower infant birth weight, kidney disease, and much more.

While PFAS use is being diminished in commercial and manufacturing methods, these toxins are still widely used. Moreover, they do not break down through time, so those produced in the 20th century can still be found in our environment. There are new types of PFAS popping up frequently as industry sectors develop various products.

Soil and water supply are perfect areas for PFAS accumulation. To sample for PFAS, it is imperative to use instruments free from PFAS. There are several variants in samples, and current regulations define PFAS as a set list of contaminants. However, since evolving chemicals are constantly coming into play, there is an intensifying need for efficient analytical workflows that can spot PFAS with elevated precision or identify unidentified PFAS components in water samples.

Solid-Phase Extractions (SPE) analyze drinking water using LC-MS/MS. These techniques are time-consuming and complicated due to the use of a vacuum manifold and various chemicals. Human error can easily occur, boosting the risk of contamination. Now, new technologies for SPE are being implemented, which deliver unfailing results with minimal human interaction. This new automation process reduces the risk of contamination while simultaneously increasing overall efficiency. 

Monitoring and testing for PFAS contamination have improved thanks to recent advancements in mass spectrometry. Water testing laboratories have processes that are more cost-effective than before, achieving highly accurate results. Laboratories can now increase the range of possible objectives and more closely monitor false positives.

To learn more about PFAS or have your water tested, contact the water treatment experts at Reynolds Water today.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

EPA Grants 1.2M to U-M to Study Wastewater Viruses

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has granted the University of Michigan researchers $1.2 million. The purpose of the funds is to study the efficiency of current wastewater virus removal treatments. One of the overall goals is to increase the viability of using wastewater as drinking water.

While existing technologies might be quite effective, they can be equally complex. By upgrading the water treatment facilities – particularly in drought-prone areas – reusing wastewater might be more realistic and practical.

Krista Wigginton, associate professor of civil and environmental engineering, said, “In areas where water scarcity is becoming a growing concern, they may be forced to look at methods like desalination or potable reuse for their drinking water. If we make reuse rules too stringent, and we’re not giving treatment systems the proper credit for what they’re already removing from the water, we’re going to create a much more expensive project for communities.”

Wigginton will lead a three-year study to identify what aspects of water quality can be monitored in real-time. Using three methods (ozone, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, and biological wastewater treatment), the researchers will evaluate whether viruses are effectively removed during those processes. 

Contaminated and strained water resources combined with a rising global population are determining factors for treating and reusing wastewater as drinking water. According to the World Health Organization, half of the global population will reside in “water-stressed” areas. In the United States, countless regions are experiencing lengthy droughts that compromise water supplies.

The EPA said, “The changing climate is challenging many communities to meet their long-term water needs. Reuse of treated wastewater and stormwater for agricultural, nonpotable or even potable uses provides an alternative source of water that can be more reliable than traditional water sources.”

Wigginton said, “We may actually be better at virus removal than we already know. For some of these processes, like ultraviolet light, we already have robust models for predicting how they eliminate viruses. But for others that may not have been studied as much, we don’t have these models. We want to correct that.”

Are you interested in purifying your water? Contact Reynolds Water Conditioning Co. today to learn how we can improve your water.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

EPA Issues First PFAS Regulations

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is focused on distinguishing chances to better protect public health and the environment. Recently, the EPA unveiled the Preliminary Effluent Guidelines Program Plan 15, which aims to reduce chemicals in wastewater.

In an effort to lower toxins from specific industries, the EPA enacted three new rules or guidelines to reduce per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and other pollutants.

Radhika Fox, Assistant Administrator for Water, said, “To protect drinking water supplies, recreational waters, and aquatic ecosystems, it is essential that we utilize the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs in wastewater treatment. Importantly and for the first time, EPA is committing to limit PFAS in wastewater discharges.”

The two standards for PFAS pertain to the following industries:

  • Metal finishing industries are to remediate PFAS discharges from chromium electroplating facilities
  • Industries manufacturing organic chemicals, plastics, and synthetic fibers to clean up PFAS runoff from buildings manufacturing the chemical

Nutrient discharges from meat and poultry product industries are also to be addressed. Also included in the report was the steam electric power generating category. The EPA will consider reinforcing the already-strict limits which apply to coal power plants regarding waste streams used to produce electricity.

PFAS are man-made substances used in industrial settings to create thousands of products worldwide. Dubbed “Forever Chemicals,” these chemicals do not break down over time and are extremely persistent in the environment. Found in the blood of 99.9 percent of human beings across the globe, it’s impossible to reverse exposure to PFAS.

Present in everyday household items, food, drinking water, living organisms, workplace facilities, and much more, PFAS are found in carpet, Teflon products (cookware, Scotchguard, etc.), leather, apparel, rubber plastics, paper, packaging, and so much more. The list is seemingly endless.

PFAS is an emerging issue because it has been found to create a host of health issues in living beings, including humans. Adverse health effects include problems with the reproductive system, developmental and fetal complications, immune system impediments, autoimmune disease spikes, thyroid hormone disruption, and cancer.

To reduce PFAS from your drinking water, contact the treatment experts at Reynolds today.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

Ohio’s Chippewa Lake Celebrates Two Years Sans Algal Blooms

Ohio’s largest inland natural lake, Chippewa Lake, is commending its method of algal bloom treatment by celebrating the second anniversary of complete remediation. BlueGreen Water Technologies issued a press release explaining how their treatment halted five years of sky-high toxicity levels in the lake. The treatment product, called Lake Guard® Blue, removed the toxic algae in only 24 hours and marked the first full-scale United States implementation.

Dr. Moshe Harel, BlueGreen CSO, said, “The success of BlueGreen’s treatment in Chippewa Lake was achieved through a change of phytoplankton composition: the Lake Guard® Blue effectively removed the toxic cyanobacterial species to boost the “immune system” of the lake. By increasing the diversity of beneficial phytoplankton species and restoring the lake to a healthy ecosystem, we have prevented the resurgence of the harmful cyanobacteria.”

Professor Aaron Kaplan, Chair of BlueGreen’s Scientific Board, said, “This event is a milestone along BlueGreen’s road of achievements. The fact that Chippewa Lake remains clean while all other lakes in the region are under harmful algal bloom alert speaks for itself.”

BlueGreen was named the Global Water Awards’ “2021 Breakthrough Technology Company of the Year” by Global Water Intelligence (GWI) and operates on a global scale to identify and remedy toxic blue-green algae blooms.

Dr. Waleed Nasser, Director of Operations of BlueGreen US, said, “The significance of this milestone cannot be overstated, as recurring toxic blooms can be so devastating to communities like Chippewa Lake.”

Do you want to ensure your water is clean, pure, and refreshing? Contact the water treatment experts today at Reynolds Water Conditioning.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

America’s Water Towers Are Contaminated

A recent article published by USA TODAY investigates the issues with water towers across America. This in-depth analysis is imperative, as most Americans take clean water for granted. Water towers generally serve as the most visible – and vulnerable – point in public water supplies. Openings as tiny as a few millimeters could be a factor in the difference between consuming clean or contaminated water.

Investigators are known to find dead snakes, mice, and raccoons floating in water storage tanks, along with pigeon feces and other animal excrements. Experts estimate that contaminated tap water causes tens of millions of illnesses yearly, leading to nearly 1,000 deaths throughout America; however, the number of deaths caused by water tower contamination is unknown, as this is not tracked.

USA TODAY and Indiana University’s Arnolt Center for Investigative Journalism started a joint investigation that found disparities in water tank management. As a result, the public is at risk for multiple risks, especially in the absence of federal regulations. Each state has the authority to determine how to handle inspection frequency, cleaning, and more. Surprisingly, some states appear to have no rules whatsoever. Some are only checked every three to five years due to federal law.

Enforcement of the rules can be lax; a city investigation stemmed from customer complaints found a 50-year maintenance gap in Delray Beach, Florida. According to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, water storage tanks must be inspected and cleaned every five years. The water storage tank of Delray Beach, Florida, had not been cleaned since it was built in 1972.

“Nobody could remember a time when those [water] tanks were cleaned,” said George Gretsas, Delray’s city manager at the time, after inquiring with staff members. “It’s widespread corruption within the utilities department. They regularly cover themselves up,” he added.

Some examples of water tank maintenance across the United States:

  • In 1993, 650 people were sick – seven died – from a salmonella outbreak in Gideon, Missouri. Apparently, bird droppings entered the water tank through a vent.
  • Roughly 1,300 people were sick, and one died, after a salmonella outbreak in 2008, stemming from the water storage tank in Alamosa, Colorado.
  • Two five-year-old boys died in 2002 after bathing in tap water contaminated by Naegleria fowleri, a microscopic organism that infects the brain. In an investigation, a chlorinated water storage tank in Peoria, Arizona, was found to be the culprit.

There are countless stories regarding contaminated water tanks and millions of cases of gastrointestinal or respiratory illnesses that people inadvertently got from their drinking water.

Read the full report from USA TODAY to learn more. To purify your drinking water and protect yourself and your family from contaminants, contact the experts at Reynolds today.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

Michiganders Advised to Avoid Foam on Lakes and Rivers

The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) has issued a press release warning residents to stay clear of foam on Michigan lakes, rivers, and streams. The foam is typically associated with bacteria or chemicals, specifically per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), which resembles shaving cream and is bright white. The foam can blow onto beaches and pile up on shorelines. In contrast, naturally-occurring foam is typically seen in bays, eddies, or river barriers. It’s also off-white or brown and smells somewhat earthy or fishy.

Rinse or wash off foam as soon as contact is made, especially if PFAS contamination is suspected.

PFAS is an emerging toxic chemical and can be found in:

  • Food: packaged, processed, or grown in PFAS-contaminated areas
  • Household products: stain and water repellent fabrics, nonstick products (Teflon), waxes, paints, cleaning products, and fire-fighting foams (a significant source of groundwater contamination at airports and military bases)
  • Workplaces: production facilities or industrial buildings using chrome plating, electronics manufacturing, or oil recovery
  • Drinking water: near manufacturing plants, landfills, wastewater treatment plants, firefighter training facilities
  • Living organisms: fish, animals, humans, etc., where PFAS can build and persist over time.

PFAS can cause a multitude of health issues and are dubbed as “Forever Chemicals” because they never break down once they are released into the environment. PFAS are found in 99.9% of all Americans’ blood. They build up in our blood and organs, increasing the risk of cancer, harms fetuses, changes liver enzymes, increases cholesterol levels, while decreasing vaccine response in children, and more.

Dr. Joneigh Khaldun, chief medical executive and chief deputy for health at MDHHS said, “Although current science shows that the risk of PFAS getting into your system from contact with skin is low, you can minimize exposure to PFAS by rinsing or showering after you are done with your recreational activities. In general, washing hands and rinsing off after swimming will help to protect people from chemicals and bacteria that may be in waterbodies.”

MDHHS recommends people of all ages steer clear of foamy water, including young children. PFAS foam typically has a much higher concentration of chemicals than what is generally seen in everyday environments. Dogs and other pets should also not come in contact with – or swallow – the foam.

To remove PFAS from your drinking water, contact the water purification experts at Reynolds Water today.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

Are Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water a Health Risk?

In 2008, the Associated Press (AP) conducted a five-month investigation and published a three-part series documenting a wide array of pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, anti-convulsants, mood stabilizers, and sex hormones) that were present in the drinking water of at least 41 million Americans. The concentrations were minuscule but left scientists concerned.

How do pharmaceuticals end up in our water? When people take medicine, some gets absorbed by the body; what doesn’t gets flushed out through our urinary tract, ending up in our sewage systems. Moreover, leftover drugs are oftentimes flushed down the toilet in full-form and eventually into our water supply.

Treatment facilities are not required to test for pharmaceuticals or filter them out. The AP National Investigative Team sorted through hundreds of scientific reports, meticulously filtered through federal drinking water databases, visited environmental study sites and treatment plants, interviewing over 230 officials, scientists, and professors. The largest 50 cities in the United States, along with another dozen other major smaller communities, were surveyed in the study as well.

“You have to drink water. And bottled water isn’t any better than tap water,” said Dr. David Carpenter, director of the Institute for Health and the Environment at the State University of New York at Albany. He said most tap water treatments do not filter pharmaceuticals; however, activated charcoal filters remove most chemical compounds.

Since 2008, little research or information has been published regarding this issue. Follow-up articles are virtually non-existent from the press. Despite the overwhelming silence, several scientific reports have examined the human health risk of drinking pharmaceutical-laced water.

Surface water, groundwater, and drinking water across the United States are tainted with pharmaceuticals from discharges from wastewater treatment plants, septic systems, leaking sewer lines, landfills, animal feeding operations, and crop fields where biosolids are used.

Seven human health risk assessments of pharmaceuticals in drinking water throughout the United States and Canada were reviewed by the American Council on Science and Health. “None of these studies reported a potential health risk from exposure to pharmaceuticals in drinking water,” the site said.

The World Health Organization (WHO) also conducted a study, reporting that the ratio of pharmaceuticals in drinking water is so minimal that they pose a low risk to human health.  “Concerns over pharmaceuticals in drinking water should not divert water suppliers and regulators from other priorities for drinking water and health, most notably microbial risks such as bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens, and other chemical risks, such as naturally-occurring arsenic and excessive levels of fluoride,” the article states. The site also explains that pharmaceuticals in drinking water are an emerging issue, so the WHO will continue to examine studies as applicable and update the guidance provided when necessary.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in offering the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

CDC Investigates Whether COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness Is Decreased by PFAS Exposure

A letter addressed to Michigan State Representative Dan Kildee from Dr. Robert Redfield, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, stated the CDC’s Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is “assessing the intersection between PFAS exposure and COVID-19” by investigating whether exposure to these “forever chemicals” affects potential effectiveness and duration of the COVID-19 vaccine. 

Healthcare workers and first responders are first under the CDC study. ATSDR will measure PFAS levels in participants to determine a link between PFAS in their blood and the likelihood of contracting COVID-19. The connection of PFAS levels and antibody response to the coronavirus will give insight into the impact of PFAS levels and the potential duration of vaccine protection.

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl fluorinated substances called PFAS are dubbed “Forever Chemicals” due to the chemical bonds that hold the compounds together (about 5,000 substances) which never break down in the environment. For many reasons (including factory and facility discharge), PFAS have been found in drinking water throughout the United States. Over 1,400 communities in 49 states have detected PFAS in their drinking water, according to the Environmental Working Group (EWG). This equates to roughly 110 million Americans drinking PFAS-contaminated water. PFAS can be found everywhere; they are in hundreds of products such as food-delivery containers and papers, nonstick cookware, stain-resistant clothing, carpets, furniture, fireproof items, clothes, cosmetics, personal care products, and so much more. Tiny doses of PFAS are linked to cancer, reproductive and immune system damage, weight gain, and a plethora of other diseases. It is estimated that PFAS are found in the blood of 99.9 percent of all human beings on earth, including newborn babies.

Some populations are at risk of being exposed to higher levels of PFAS than others, such as firefighters, military personnel, and communities with PFAS-contaminated drinking water or factories nearby. According to an analysis by the EWG, every organ is affected by PFAS exposure, but the immune system is especially vulnerable. Studies have shown a weaker response to tetanus and diphtheria vaccinations in adults.

Dr. Philippe Grandjean led the study on PFAS exposure and its relation to a diminished response to tetanus and diphtheria vaccinations. Recently, an article he wrote in The Guardian expressed fears regarding the possibility for people with high levels of PFAS to experience similar reactions to a COVID-19 vaccine. Grandjean said, “People with high exposure to PFAS have non-protective and very low antibody levels after four vaccinations for diptheria and tetanus. So if a vaccine for COVID-19 is similar, the PFAS will likely inhibit the response from a vaccine. But it is unknown at this stage.”

To learn more, read the full report from EWG. For an in-depth chemical analysis of your drinking water or to purchase a filter, contact the experts at Reynolds Water today.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

Protect Yourself from PFAS ‘Forever Chemicals’

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl fluorinated substances called PFAS are dubbed “Forever Chemicals” due to the chemical bonds that hold the compounds together (about 5,000 substances) which never break down in the environment. PFAS can be found everywhere; they are in hundreds of products such as food-delivery containers and papers, nonstick cookware, stain-resistant clothing, carpets, and furniture, fireproof items, clothes, cosmetics, personal care products, and so much more. Tiny doses of PFAS are linked to cancer, reproductive and immune system damage, weight gain, and a plethora of other diseases. It is estimated that PFAS are found in the blood of 99.9 percent of all human beings on Earth, including newborn babies.

For many reasons (including factory and facility discharge), PFAS have been found in drinking water throughout the United States. Over 1,400 communities in 49 states have detected PFAS in their drinking water according to the Environmental Working Group (EWG). This equates to roughly 110 million Americans drinking PFAS-contaminated water.

What was once dubbed a “Miracle of Chemistry” is now an “Unimaginable Water Crisis.” Chemical companies have been covering up evidence of PFAS’ health hazards for decades. When DuPont introduced the novel nonstick Teflon brand to Americans in 1946, the PFAS substances used to make that material were translated into thousands of everyday household items that repel stains and are waterproof.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been investigating PFAS since the late 1990s. As our nation’s regulatory agency for drinking water, they have yet to issue an enforceable nationwide standard for PFAS. Even more risk factors have been discovered by scientists and environmental organizations about PFAS throughout the years, and still, the EPA has failed to act.

Drinking water includes both tap and bottled forms. Bottled water is overseen by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates contaminants in bottled water based on the EPA’s limits. Consumer Reports recently tested 47 bottled waters and detected PFAS in 43 of them, including sparkling cans.

To limit your exposure to PFAS, call the water experts at Reynolds Water today. They will test your water and offer an appropriate reverse osmosis filter. Choose bottled waters carefully, and avoid products that are known to contain PFAS.

For more information about PFAS, watch this documentary called “The Devil We Know” or browse this informatory website from EWG which explains in detail where PFAS originated, a map of the spread, and what you can do to stop it from affecting you and your loved ones. Also check out our past blog articles: “Michigan’s new PFAS Rules Among Strictest in Nation,” “Erin Brockovich claims the US is in an Unimaginable Water Crisis,” and “Toxic PFAS Leach Through Most In-Home Drinking Water Filters.”

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.  

Toxic PFAS Leach Through Most In-Home Drinking Water Filters

Filters on refrigerator doors, pitcher-style filters, and whole-house filtration systems might function differently overall, but they have one thing in common: they might not be removing all toxic drinking water contaminants. Toxic PFAS, dubbed “forever chemicals,” persist in the environment indefinitely and accumulate in the human body. 99.9 percent of humans worldwide have PFAS in their bloodstreams. 

Duke and North Carolina State University scientists found that most filters are only partially effective in removing PFAS. Research suggests that several filters, if not properly maintained, can lead to even higher levels. PFAS have known health impacts and are a widespread presence in the environment, especially in drinking water. Exposure to these toxic chemicals is associated with various cancers, low birth weight in babies, thyroid disease, impaired immune function, and other health disorders. PFAS can also affect reproductive and developmental health in mothers and children.

“We tested 76 point-of-use filters and 13 point-of-entry or whole-house systems and found their effectiveness varied widely,” said Heather Stapleton, the Dan and Bunny Gabel Associate Professor of Environmental Health at Duke’s Nicholas School of the Environment.

“All of the under-sink reverse osmosis and two-stage filters achieved near-complete removal of the PFAS chemicals we were testing for. In contrast, the effectiveness of activated-carbon filters used in many pitcher, countertop, refrigerator, and faucet-mounted styles was inconsistent and unpredictable. The whole-house systems were also widely variable and, in some cases, actually increased PFAS levels in the water,” Stapleton said.

Reverse osmosis and two-stage filters reduced PFAS levels by 94 percent or more in water. Activated carbon filters removed 73 percent of PFAS contaminants, on average, but results varied greatly. While the chemicals were entirely removed in some cases, they were not reduced at all in others. Researchers suggest changing filters regularly is the best way to ensure proper functionality. Whole-house systems using activated carbon filters varied widely.

To learn more, read the full report by Duke’s Nicholas School of the Environment. To be sure your home is getting the best filtration system that meets your needs, contact a water conditioning specialist. Contact the professionals at Reynolds Water Conditioning today and schedule a consultation to remove toxic chemicals from your drinking water.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in offering the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.